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Iron Age

IDENTIFICAZIONE DELLA SIMBOLOGIA DELLA FARFALLA SU UNA STELE DAUNIA

Nel Museo Nazionale di Manfredonia è esposto il frammento di statua-stele identificato col numero di inventario 0808 (Stele con ornamenti rinvenuta ad Arpi – VIII secolo A.C.). Questo reperto è stato così descritto da Silvio Ferri, in una pubblicazione dell’anno 1966: «Il frammento è costituito dalla metà inferiore di una stele (solito calcare) che ha su ambedue le facce una risega per l’infissione in piedistallo apposito…le due braccia del morto sono a rilievo (dita maldestramente qualificate) nella faccia A. Un particolare veramente nuovo e del più particolare interesse – in quanto ci fa sentire la dolorosa possibilità di avere perduto intere serie di temi figurativi con tutti i loro connessi problemi di esegesi e di collegamento tra nord e sud – è nella faccia B: una striscia di rappresentanza corografica o topografica che dir si voglia, nella parte inferiore della stele, striscia che occupa tutta la larghezza della stele e che continua, curiosamente, nello spessore sinistro>>. [nggallery id=22]Lo studioso continua con l’analisi delle varie parti dell’incisione, ma omette di rilevare la grande simbologia presente nella faccia A, che rappresenta decisamente una farfalla (presentata nel pannello illustrativo come simbolo ad occhiali). E’ molto interessante ritrovare questa simbologia della farfalla, da identificarsi nella funzione di animale psicopompo, cioè l’animale attraverso il quale lo spirito del defunto ritorna alla costellazione-generatrice, dopo aver vissuto la propria vita esperienza di vita sulla Terra, secondo il principio sciamanico del contrappasso (cioè chi è ricco sulla Terra sarà povero nella vita futura e viceversa). Infatti è stata già riscontrata la rappresentazione della simbologia della farfalla nella statuetta che rappresenta la sciamana, ritrovata in Passo di Corvo.

Questa statuetta (fig. 1), pubblicata da Marija Gimbutas nell’opera “Il Linguaggio della Dea” (figura n. 36) è datata 5 700 – 5 300 A.C. e le farfalle sono identificate come simbolo di rigenerazione (Gimbutas non conosceva l’archeoastronomia e non ha così potuto completare l’identificazione della costellazione-generatrice Cassiopea – valida per le genti della Daunia come per i Sami della Lapponia – ritenendo che i segni ad M presenti sotto i due seni della sciamana fossero bisce d’acqua). E’ valido in ogni caso il tema dell’acqua nella liturgia funebre, identificabile con la lavatura rituale del cadavere.

Si noti come l’identificazione del simbolo dell’acqua venga riconosciuto da Ferri anche nel frammento 0808: «…poi un corso d’acqua (piuttosto acqua che monti), poi una zona quadrettata…quindi altra acqua…«. La presenza dell’acqua (e non di bisce d’acqua, come invece ipotizzato da Santo Tiné e da Marija Gimbutas) si riscontra anche nella parte posteriore della statuetta di Passo di Corvo.
Cinquemila anni di storia sul territorio che diverrà la Daunia consacrano la complessità della vita spirituale delle genti che la popolarono, una storia contrassegnata dall’utilizzo di una simbologia attinente il principio sciamanico di trascendenza (l’uomo è costituito di corpo, anima e spirito, e questo è immortale, si forma nella costellazione-generatrice e ad essa ritorna dopo la morte).

BIBLIOGRAFIA

Bellatalla D., De Toffol D.
– Sciamanesimo e Sacro tra i Buriati della Mongolia – Natura Trekking
Servizi, La Spezia, 1997

Calzolari E., Fadda L., Gori D.
– The generating-constellation of the Great Bear, Cassiopeia and the
butterfly – International Conference INSAP III – The Inspiration of Astronomical
Phenomena – Palermo, December 31, January 6, 2001

Calzolari E., Gori D.
– Misteri di Lunigiana…la farfalla dorata – Luna Editore, La Spezia, 2000

Eliade Mircea
– Trattato di storia delle religioni – Boringhieri, Torino, 1976

Gimbutas Marija
– Il linguaggio della Dea – Longanesi, Milano, 1990

Leone Laura
– L’ ideologia delle statue-menhir e statue -stele in Puglia , e la concettualità del simbolo fallico-antropomorfo- Dei nella pietra. Quaderni dell’ Associazione Lombarda Archeologica, Milano 2000.

Ferri Silvio
– Stele Daunie VI – Bollettino d’Arte , nn. III-IV, 1966, pp.121-132

Rappenglück Michael A.
– Eine Himmlskarte aus der Eiszeit? – Peter Lang, Frankfurt an Main, 1999

Rappenglück Michael A.
– A paleolithic shamanistic cosmography. How to decode the famous rock
Picture in the shaft of the Lascaux Grotto – Atti del Valcamonica Symposium 1998,
Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici, Capo di Ponte, Brescia

Tiné Santo
– Passo di Corvo e la civiltà neolitica del Tavoliere – Sagep Editrice, Genova, 1983

(ENRICO CALZOLARI)

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